Carbohydrates


Hi, it’s Mr. AnDeRsAn in this podcast. I’m going to talk about CARBOHYDRATESSSSSSS when I say the word CARBohydRaTeS, you might think about the starch that’s found in this bread or maybe in this pasta. (GoD tHe SciEnCE) As a biology teacher, I immediately think of SuGAR because that’s going to be the BUilDiNg BLocKs? upon which most carbohydrates are made But you>MusT NeEdWTFISTHAT anDeRsOn:3 Sugars in science, we call

LiStEn CHirEn saccharides and the reason I wrote
WHats The ReaSOn carbohydrates inside these hexagons is that that’s how sugars are essentially put together and so if we have just one of these sugar molecules
>>DaMnn ANderSON>>oOoOoOOOOoO Lacawhat nOW:3>:3>:3 And so you’re going to feel a little irritation in your gut and that’s because we can’t break it down now that seems to be there’s some really cool studies You could read on on lactose Tolerance or intolerance And it’s been naturally selected in other words if your ancestors had domesticated cattle it made sense for them to Drink milk later on in their life, but most people just drink milk when they were young and [so] they quit producing that lactase enzyme Okay, let’s go to Oligosaccharides oligosaccharides are going to be like three to ten different sugar molecules They’re important in Biology in one Pretty important part and that is in the production of these which are called glycoproteins, so we’re in a cell membrane and these which are going to be glycol lipids if you look at the glyco part or the Sugar part that’s going to be just a few sugar Molecules attached together And these are really important for example attaching to the extracellular Matrix. They’re important in identifying what type of a cell it is Here’s an interesting note. I learned on Wikipedia if you were to eat carrots carrots are a wonderful wonderful source of oligosaccharides However, you can’t get the sugar molecules out of it until you’ve cooked the carrots for about an hour to release those oligosaccharides But again, if you’re not getting them in your diet We can synthesize those inside the cell now let’s look at this number right here as we go from Oligosaccharides to Polysaccharides and look how how much that jumped and so when we’re talking about starch for example? What is starch starch is going to be? Hundreds of these glucose molecules attached over and over and over again and so the starch that’s found in a potato Or if we dry it out It’s going to look like this is going to be hundreds of sugar molecules attached over and over and over again now Why are plants doing this? Why are they making these large molecules? They’re storing energy in the starch molecule
OkaY iM DoNe So they can use it by chopping it down into individual monosaccharides now can we do that? you bet. We’ve got glycogen. So glycogen is essentially a
ByE dAd Macro Macro Molecule, and so it’s going to have thousands of glucose molecules Attracted together chemically bonded together you can see what how monstrous this looks with all these individual glucose molecules And we’re going to store that in the liver and so if you are Carbo loading, what are you really doing? You’re eating a bunch of starch, you’re breaking those down into monosaccharides, and then you’re reattaching those again And you’re storing them in our liver as glycogen and so we can get to those stores eventually when we need it We can chalk chop up those monosaccharides, and we can use them in the cell But we also get structure remember and so cellulose that makes up that structure in a lot of plants you can see here It’s going to be a bunch of sugar Molecules attached over and over again But we’re going to have these hydrogen bonds
>>ArE SCieNcEMOM! Its mY MoMThiS iS cRaZY nUMERS

100 Replies to “Carbohydrates”

  1. THIS IS SO HELPFUL we love you (from people who actually don't stare at their phone all day and are somewhat interested in this stuff, or are doing extra credit for school)

  2. This was very helpful, probably amongst the best videos on youtube to help students, clearly and succinctly explained.

  3. Hey everyone! We are two high school seniors and we post STEM tutorials weekly! Need help in AP Bio or Chem? Check us out today and don't forget to subscribe!

  4. I just want to know why people came to this video.. So what are you guys studying for exactly? I watched this for chemistry.

  5. Hello Mr. Anderson, just wanted to say that you're basically my teacher because mine uses your videos as lessons. Thank you

  6. Thank you soo much for these videos. I just started college but I graduated from an awful alternative school and they didn't care enough about us to actually teach us. My science classes consisted of drawings and definitions. Now I'm trying to get on my feet and enter the medical field but Biology is kicking my butt. You explain things so much easier than my professor does.

  7. That wasn't helpful, it was super helpful. You cover almost everything needed. Amazing videos. Good job 👏🏼

  8. I'm a student and you keep saving my life sir!
    your work is appreciated more than you could ever imagine….KEEP UP!

  9. This was way to smart for me. I had some coconut cake and took a nap with tingles all over my body. was that the sugar?

  10. I'd like to report an error in your video:

    Sucrose has the molecular formula: C12H22O11.
    It slightly differs from the general formula of monosaccharides – (CH2O)n – because of the dehydration reaction that two monosaccharides have undergone to form a disaccharide.

    Anyway, kudos on your videos; they're very helpful. 🙂

  11. I'm a Junior in College majoring in Biomedical Sciences, and I've been watching this guy's videos since 10th grade.

  12. I was having problems with pre grated parmesan cheese. Turns out they are cutting it with saw dust. Seems I cannot digest wood. By the way, it is legal and they don't have to list it. Supposedly it makes it flow better. I buy the bricks now and grate myself.

  13. Nyarlathotep . . . the crawling chaos . . . I am the last . . . I will tell the audient void. . . .
    I do not recall distinctly when it began, but it was months ago. The general tension was horrible. To a season of political and social upheaval was added a strange and brooding apprehension of hideous physical danger; a danger widespread and all-embracing, such a danger as may be imagined only in the most terrible phantasms of the night. I recall that the people went about with pale and worried faces, and whispered warnings and prophecies which no one dared consciously repeat or acknowledge to himself that he had heard. A sense of monstrous guilt was upon the land, and out of the abysses between the stars swept chill currents that made men shiver in dark and lonely places. There was a daemoniac alteration in the sequence of the seasons—the autumn heat lingered fearsomely, and everyone felt that the world and perhaps the universe had passed from the control of known gods or forces to that of gods or forces which were unknown.
    And it was then that Nyarlathotep came out of Egypt. Who he was, none could tell, but he was of the old native blood and looked like a Pharaoh. The fellahin knelt when they saw him, yet could not say why. He said he had risen up out of the blackness of twenty-seven centuries, and that he had heard messages from places not on this planet. Into the lands of civilisation came Nyarlathotep, swarthy, slender, and sinister, always buying strange instruments of glass and metal and combining them into instruments yet stranger. He spoke much of the sciences—of electricity and psychology—and gave exhibitions of power which sent his spectators away speechless, yet which swelled his fame to exceeding magnitude. Men advised one another to see Nyarlathotep, and shuddered. And where Nyarlathotep went, rest vanished; for the small hours were rent with the screams of nightmare. Never before had the screams of nightmare been such a public problem; now the wise men almost wished they could forbid sleep in the small hours, that the shrieks of cities might less horribly disturb the pale, pitying moon as it glimmered on green waters gliding under bridges, and old steeples crumbling against a sickly sky.
    I remember when Nyarlathotep came to my city—the great, the old, the terrible city of unnumbered crimes. My friend had told me of him, and of the impelling fascination and allurement of his revelations, and I burned with eagerness to explore his uttermost mysteries. My friend said they were horrible and impressive beyond my most fevered imaginings; that what was thrown on a screen in the darkened room prophesied things none but Nyarlathotep dared prophesy, and that in the sputter of his sparks there was taken from men that which had never been taken before yet which shewed only in the eyes. And I heard it hinted abroad that those who knew Nyarlathotep looked on sights which others saw not.
    It was in the hot autumn that I went through the night with the restless crowds to see Nyarlathotep; through the stifling night and up the endless stairs into the choking room. And shadowed on a screen, I saw hooded forms amidst ruins, and yellow evil faces peering from behind fallen monuments. And I saw the world battling against blackness; against the waves of destruction from ultimate space; whirling, churning; struggling around the dimming, cooling sun. Then the sparks played amazingly around the heads of the spectators, and hair stood up on end whilst shadows more grotesque than I can tell came out and squatted on the heads. And when I, who was colder and more scientific than the rest, mumbled a trembling protest about “imposture” and “static electricity”, Nyarlathotep drave us all out, down the dizzy stairs into the damp, hot, deserted midnight streets. I screamed aloud that I was not afraid; that I never could be afraid; and others screamed with me for solace. We sware to one another that the city was exactly the same, and still alive; and when the electric lights began to fade we cursed the company over and over again, and laughed at the queer faces we made.
    I believe we felt something coming down from the greenish moon, for when we began to depend on its light we drifted into curious involuntary formations and seemed to know our destinations though we dared not think of them. Once we looked at the pavement and found the blocks loose and displaced by grass, with scarce a line of rusted metal to shew where the tramways had run. And again we saw a tram-car, lone, windowless, dilapidated, and almost on its side. When we gazed around the horizon, we could not find the third tower by the river, and noticed that the silhouette of the second tower was ragged at the top. Then we split up into narrow columns, each of which seemed drawn in a different direction. One disappeared in a narrow alley to the left, leaving only the echo of a shocking moan. Another filed down a weed-choked subway entrance, howling with a laughter that was mad. My own column was sucked toward the open country, and presently felt a chill which was not of the hot autumn; for as we stalked out on the dark moor, we beheld around us the hellish moon-glitter of evil snows. Trackless, inexplicable snows, swept asunder in one direction only, where lay a gulf all the blacker for its glittering walls. The column seemed very thin indeed as it plodded dreamily into the gulf. I lingered behind, for the black rift in the green-litten snow was frightful, and I thought I had heard the reverberations of a disquieting wail as my companions vanished; but my power to linger was slight. As if beckoned by those who had gone before, I half floated between the titanic snowdrifts, quivering and afraid, into the sightless vortex of the unimaginable.
    Screamingly sentient, dumbly delirious, only the gods that were can tell. A sickened, sensitive shadow writhing in hands that are not hands, and whirled blindly past ghastly midnights of rotting creation, corpses of dead worlds with sores that were cities, charnel winds that brush the pallid stars and make them flicker low. Beyond the worlds vague ghosts of monstrous things; half-seen columns of unsanctified temples that rest on nameless rocks beneath space and reach up to dizzy vacua above the spheres of light and darkness. And through this revolting graveyard of the universe the muffled, maddening beating of drums, and thin, monotonous whine of blasphemous flutes from inconceivable, unlighted chambers beyond Time; the detestable pounding and piping whereunto dance slowly, awkwardly, and absurdly the gigantic, tenebrous ultimate gods—the blind, voiceless, mindless gargoyles whose soul is Nyarlathotep.

  14. This is a great video and series. The formula for a disaccharide is C12H22O11, and the ratio of hydrogen to carbon is not always 2:1, as it is for a monosaccharide. When two monosaccharides are combined, a water molecule is lost, reducing the H by two and the O by 1.

  15. No words could ever describe how grateful I am for your videos Mr. Andersen! You're a genius and you transform chemistry into not only a manageable subject, but even a fun one. Thank you.

  16. I genuinely hate the person who made the captions on this video. I have hearing problems and it's easier to get the words from the (awful) auto-captions than the ones riddled with jokes.

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