Cell vs. virus: A battle for health – Shannon Stiles


You’re in line at the grocery store when, uh oh, someone sneezes on you. The cold virus is sucked inside your lungs and lands on a cell on your airway lining. Every living thing on Earth is made of cells, from the smallest one-celled bacteria to the giant blue whale to you. Each cell in your body is surrounded by a cell membrane, a thick flexible layer made of fats and proteins, that surrounds and protects the inner components. It’s semipermeable, meaning that it lets some thing pass in and out but blocks others. The cell membrane is covered with tiny projections. They all have functions, like helping cells adhere to their neighbors or binding to nutrients the cell will need. Animal and plant cells have cell membranes. Only plant cells have a cell wall, which is made of rigid cellulose that gives the plant structure. The virus cell that was sneezed into your lungs is sneaky. Pretending to be a friend, it attaches to a projection on the cell membrane, and the cell brings it through the cell membrane and inside. When the virus gets through, the cell recognizes its mistake. An enemy is inside! Special enzymes arrive at the scene and chop the virus to pieces. They then send one of the pieces back through the cell membrane, where the cell displays it to warn neighboring cells about the invader. A nearby cell sees the warning and immediately goes into action. It needs to make antibodies, proteins that will attack and kill the invading virus. This process starts in the nucleus. The nucleus contains our DNA, the blueprint that tells our cells how to make everything our bodies need to function. A certain section of our DNA contains instructions that tell our cells how to make antibodies. Enzymes in the nucleus find the right section of DNA, then create a copy of these instructions, called messenger RNA. The messenger RNA leaves the nucleus to carry out its orders. The messenger RNA travels to a ribosome. There can be as many as 10 million ribosomes in a human cell, all studded along a ribbon-like structure called the endoplasmic reticulum. This ribosome reads the instructions from the nucleus. It takes amino acids and links them together one by one creating an antibody protein that will go fight the virus. But before it can do that, the antibody needs to leave the cell. The antibody heads to the golgi apparatus. Here, it’s packed up for delivery outside the cell. Enclosed in a bubble made of the same material as the cell membrane, the golgi apparatus also gives the antibody directions, telling it how to get to the edge of the cell. When it gets there, the bubble surrounding the antibody fuses to the cell membrane. The cell ejects the antibody, and it heads out to track down the virus. The leftover bubble will be broken down by the cell’s lysosomes and its pieces recycled over and over again. Where did the cell get the energy to do all this? That’s the roll of the mitochondria. To make energy, the mitochondria takes oxygen, this is the only reason we breathe it, and adds electrons from the food we eat to make water molecules. That process also creates a high energy molecule, called ATP which the cell uses to power all of its parts. Plant cells make energy a different way. They have chloroplasts that combine carbon dioxide and water with light energy from the sun to create oxygen and sugar, a form of chemical energy. All the parts of a cell have to work together to keep things running smoothly, and all the cells of your body have to work together to keep you running smoothly. That’s a whole lot of cells. Scientists think there are about 37 trillion of them.

100 Replies to “Cell vs. virus: A battle for health – Shannon Stiles”

  1. School
    Teacher explaining how cells fought viruses in whole week: Blah, blah, blah, and that's why, blah, blah, blah
    And you didn't understand so much

    Ted-Ed shows a video about cells vs viruses in 4 minutes
    You feel like you got an A+

  2. Literally learned more in this four-minute video then I did in my high school biology class cell unit. Teachers make everything so complicated.

  3. First word: "You're"
    Last word: "Them"
    Combined: "You're them"
    Video classification: Learning how cells work
    You are a cell

  4. That is a concise ,beautiful and committed to the love of science video that explains our marvel of creation our cells

  5. My body had world war 4 and 5 And I could have died from both

    If your wondering how witch your probably not I had nemona and flu and it dose not feel good at all

  6. This is funny like there was a constant battle inside of us. Every now and then cells die and many new cells are born. Just like in the world we know today.

  7. And don’t forget Autobody is very complex so sometimes I can get fooled I don’t forget but then he realized done with the bank is wrong just like your face you hear from Vons now every day you make a mistake you can fix your mistakes all day long if you make a mistake fixing somebody else make some of the candy can’t fix it Daryl Reaume you should always help out those are words from God’s mouth And who’s send it God God made us do you know alarm by Parks very well you don’t need a shoulder even help him he is God God is truly a hero he sent his only one in son to be dead on the cross so he can take away our sins he never died on the cross for our sins wouldn’t be forgiven so he did that for Wright for their music

  8. We can't make food be own but the plant cell will make food by chloroplast. When 100 millions year ago the chloroplast take CO2 , H2O and Sun light☀ and release oxygen in atmosphere. When some cells eat the chloroplast and become plants cell. I study it form TED-Ed .

  9. Thank you my book in 8 class and chapter name us structure of cells. But some i can study but form you and my mother i can l learn more GK knowledge. Best of luck of 100000000
    substrate

  10. Relax your body + empty stomach + meditate in any position as long as you are comfortable: walking, standing, lying, sitting. That's the key to eliminating toxins

  11. Man:ah my life so short.
    Mosquito:nah i have 2 mont to live.
    Blood cell:oh well i have 2 days to live.

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